An accurate wheel alignment is critical to balance the treadwear and performance a vehicle's tires deliver. Stand up. Toe is the angle at which the car’s front tires point. Alignment should also be checked after the vehicle has encountered a major road hazard or curb. Therefore, alignment should be checked whenever new tires or suspension components are installed, and any time unusual tire wear patterns appear. The most obvious and easiest sign to detect is if you feel your vehicle pulling to one side. Questions range from what is the proper setting, how to make the measurements, how to align the steering wheel, and who has a good shop to do a proper electronic alignment. Before adjusting toe outside the vehicle manufacturer's recommended settings to manipulate handling, be aware that toe settings will influence wet weather handling and tire wear as well. Here's a definition of each angle and its influence on a vehicle and its tires. Caster is a stability angle, measured in degrees. Positive caster also increases tire lean when cornering (almost like having more negative camber) as the steering angle is increased. If you’re driving down a straight path but start pulling to one side, that’s a sign your caster is off. The toe setting is typically used to help compensate for the suspension bushings compliance to enhance tire wear. What Happens If You Put Your Car in Reverse While Driving? Fewer Auto Repairs. Camber is the tilting of the wheels from the vertical when viewed from the front of the vehicle. If the total toe is out of whack, you’ll experience uneven wear on the outside or inside part of your tires depending on whether your vehicle toe-in or toe-out setting is compromised. Caster is a stability angle, measured in degrees. A performance alignment calls for the manufacturer's maximum negative camber, maximum positive caster, and preferred toe settings. The vehicles actual caster angles are within specifications. Without a doubt. Using cross-camber and cross-caster is not necessary for track-only cars. Other than that, the effects of positive caster are pretty much "positive," especially increasing the lean of the tire when the vehicle is cornering while returning it to a more upright position when driving straight ahead. Mar 22 2017, 8:52pm. While positive camber is used to improve ride quality and vehicle stability, high performance vehicles may require better cornering performance. Increasing the amount of positive caster will increase steering effort and straight line tracking, as well as improve high speed stability and cornering effectiveness. Important: If other components or repairs are identified as affecting the wheel alignment, policy calls for the wheel alignment labor time to be charged to the replaced/repaired component’s labor operation time rather than the wheel alignment labor operations. If the vehicle doesn't have power steering, a noticeable increase in steering effort will be felt as positive caster is increased. Runout must not be excessive. Cam-aligner is an extremely robust and flexible system, allowing you to measure anything from an army tank to a pickup, even in the harshest of environments. The chart contains different methods manufacturers use for displaying wheel alignment angles. The Camber is defined as the wheel's vertical angle when looking at the wheels through a perspective from the front of the vehicle. Caster is the reason your bicycle steers in a straight line even after you take your hands off the handlebar. Toe can also be used to adjust vehicle handling. This rearward slope causes the front tire to remain stable when riding straight ahead and tilt towards the inside of the corner when turned. Toe is whether the front points of the wheels on the same axle are closer together (positive toe) or further apart (negative toe) than the rear points of the same wheels, when viewed from above. Since there are "acceptable" ranges provided in the manufacturer's recommendations, the technician should be encouraged to align the vehicle to the preferred settings and not just within the range. This is a starting point only, testing and monitoring tire temperatures and pressures are required to optimize any setup. The specifications in the chart are for the front of the vehicle. This is important for drivers who continuously carry loads in their vehicles, such as sales representatives with samples or literature in the trunk. Out-of-alignment conditions occur when the suspension and steering systems are not operating at their desired angles. It is read negative one quarter of an inch plus or minus one eighth of an inch. Tow in is set to zero. Wheel Alignment Check. Read More Upgrade offer. Your car’s caster works in the same way. Each tire develops an equal and offsetting "camber thrust" force (the same principle that causes a motorcycle to turn when it leans) even when the vehicle is driven straight ahead. Appropriate camber settings that take into account the vehicle and driver's aggressiveness will help balance treadwear with cornering performance. Excessive camber will also reduce the available straight-line grip required for rapid acceleration and hard stops. every 6,000 miles) will help protect your tire investment in the long run. Caster angle settings allow the vehicle manufacturer to balance steering effort, high speed stability and front end cornering effectiveness. 4 Things That Can Happen When You Drive With Worn Brakes, New Brakes Squeaking? Regular wheel alignments will usually save you as much in tire wear as they cost, and should be considered routine, preventative maintenance. Trust us, this is going to be the best way to understand the caster setting. © 2021 Firestone Complete Auto Care. Yes, this part has a funny name, but its importance is no laughing matter. It’s easy to miss the signs of a toe alignment problem. The following settings are dependent on the intended use of your vehicle and manufacturer recommendations. It’s all about straight lines with caster. While this is certainly an example of wear not being as important as grip, negative camber even helps these sophisticated racing cars corner better. Extend it out and you'll discover that rather than running parallel to each other, the front tires will scrub over 1/4-mile sideways during every 100 miles of driving! Excessive toe settings often bring with them drivability problems, especially during heavy rain. Before an alignment is done, it is important to make sure all suspension components are in good shape. Conversely, a front-wheel drive vehicle "pulls" the vehicle through the front axle, resulting in forward movement of the suspension arms against their bushings. The toe angle identifies the exact direction the tires are pointed compared to the centerline of the vehicle when viewed from directly above. That may be before your time, but inquiring minds want to know. Let’s get you back on the straight and narrow. Caster. Additionally, when a vehicle is used for autocross or track events, some racers will sit in their car, or have the alignment shop "ballast" their vehicle to include the influence of the driver's weight on the suspension angles. These settings are a good starting point for a car with mono-ball or spherical control arm bushings. Tech Article: Suspension Alignment Settings Explained Camber:. Apply these position to your front and rear tires, and you’re now a toe alignment whiz. I-track II MEASURE A 6×2 VEHICLE IN FOUR MINUTES! Adjustments can then be made to the car’s suspension and steering geometry, and with the laser alignment equipment still attached to the car, continue to be made until the settings are back to the factory specification, or other setting. 131 Cost . On a solid rear axle vehicle, this requires a thrust angle alignment that allows the technician to confirm that all four wheels are "square" with each other. Alignment Specifications for a Ford Mustang. If the vehicle encounters a bump that only causes one tire to lose some of its grip, the other tire's negative camber will push the vehicle in the direction of the tire that lost grip. We’ll use those angles to properly align the wheel camber. There is no caster setting for the rear of a vehicle. It’s rough out there. Many of today's alignment machines are equipped with printouts that compare the "before" and "after" alignment angles with the manufacturers' specifications. WHEEL ALIGNMENT SPECIFICATIONS & PROCEDURES 1998 Mitsubishi Montero 1997-98 WHEEL ALIGNMENT Mitsubishi - Specifications & Procedures Diamante, Eclipse, Galant, Mirage, Montero, Montero Sport, 3000GT RIDING HEIGHT ADJUSTMENT NOTE: Prior to performing wheel alignment, perform preliminary visual and mechanical inspection of wheels, tires and That is considered “toe out.” Ok, now point them inwards. If the total toe is off, severe tire wear can result. However by adhering to the manufacturer’s wheel alignment specifications and setting the angles within the stated I get lots of questions asked about getting the MG cars front end aligned properly. The toe setting is typically used to help compensate for rubber suspension bushing compliance while the car is moving. There is … Notice the 45’ or forty-five minute reading for the RF. Rounding to 1 decimal place, if 2nd decimal place is below 5 then just delete it, Tire Condition Since street suspensions cannot completely compensate for the outer tire tipping towards the outside when the vehicle leans in a corner, there isn't a magical camber setting that will allow the tires to remain vertical when traveling straight down the road (for more even wear), and remain perpendicular to the road during hard cornering (for more generous grip). Negative camber leans both tires on the axle towards the center of the vehicle. Blackdog/evil. Even though they have some of the most refined suspensions in the world, the next time you see a head-on photo of a Formula 1 car set up for a road course, notice how much negative camber is dialed into the front wheels. Increased toe-out will typically result in reduced understeer, helping free up the car, especially during initial turn-in while entering a corner. Get Yourself in Alignment - Part I. An enthusiastic driver who corners faster than a reserved driver will receive more cornering grip and longer tire life from a tire aligned with more negative camber. Now point your feet out. Caster. Advanced Wheel Alignment Information. Sun or Snow: Are All-Weather Tires Right for You? Today we are going to look at alignment settings specifically as they apply to road course driving. Quick fact: While some positive or negative camber is good, too much of either is bad. Many stores are open late and on weekends. Incorrect alignment settings will usually result in more rapid tire wear. At AlignmentSpecs.com, we provide accurate and complete wheel alignment specifications, ball joint testing specifications, chassis/suspension height specifications, and other service data necessary to service your customer's S … There is no caster setting for the rear of a vehicle. That’s ’negative camber.’ Positive camber is for stability, while negative camber is common in high performance vehicles that require better cornering. The vehicle manufacturers' alignment specifications usually identify a "preferred" angle for camber, caster and toe (with preferred thrust angle always being zero). By Jim Lunson, tech committee . This is because the daily pounding of tractor trailers on many highways leave ruts that fill with water. While Camber, Caster & Toe-in are the settings that are always checked when doing a wheel alignment, they are not the only settings. Additionally the vehicle's toe is one of the most critical alignment settings relative to tire wear. The caster in this vehicle is four degrees plus or minus one-half degrees (.5°). Consider that if the toe setting is just 1/16-inch off of its appropriate setting, each tire on that axle will scrub almost seven feet sideways every mile! A very visual example of positive caster is a motorcycle's front steering forks. What's the downside to negative camber? A 3½-inch spacer block is used on F-100 (4 x 4) trucks between the side rails and front wheel drive axle (bottom right). Credit. When the wheels tilt outward at the top, the caster is positive (+). Different driving styles can also influence the desired camber angle as well. 0.25” x 25.4 = 6.35mm, rounded = 6.4mm ). strut/shock, steering knuckle, etc. Difficulty . The camber angle is read one degree plus or minus 30 minutes. If your tires are misaligned, a little jolt could lead to big … The chart contains different methods manufacturers use for displaying wheel alignment angles. Re: Alignment Specs. Car Battery Problems: When is it Time for a New Battery? Wheel alignment specs are available for all S-10 models here. By attaching special laser measuring equipment to the wheels it is possible to read the angles of these. Sometimes. Most street car alignments call for the front camber and caster settings to be adjusted to slightly different specifications on the right side of the vehicle compared to the left side. It is equal to .75° (decimal degrees). This alignment is designed and tested with race slicks, not DOT tires. Not all vehicles are easily adjustable or fully adjustable. Now, to give you a demonstration, you’re going to want to use your feet to best understand camber. When the wheels tilt inward at the top, the camber is negative (-). Fast wheel alignment for any vehicle. If the rules permit, aftermarket camber plates and caster adjustments are good investments. The manufacturers also provide the acceptable "minimum" and "maximum" angles for each specification. Camber plays a major role in your cornering and stability. I have always wondered this about lifted trucks. Wheel Alignment Settings. Now, to give you a demonstration, you’re going to want to use your feet to best understand camber. I have seen a lot of them with horridible tire wear. The specifications in the chart are for the front of the vehicle. Do alignment angles need to change with the addition of wider tires and big lifts. The caster angle is determined by your vehicle’s suspension design and the intended vehicle use. Save on tires, brakes, batteries, oil changes and more. The ( ‘ ) or minutes symbol is used to view or represent angles just like an actual clock. The thirty minutes reading equals one half a degree. A toe setting that is just a little off its appropriate setting can make a huge difference in their wear. Because of this, most rear-wheel drive vehicles use some positive toe-in to compensate for the movement, enabling the tires to run parallel to each other at speed. The thrust angle is an imaginary line drawn perpendicular to the rear axle's centerline. Less negative camber (until the tire is perpendicular to the road at zero camber) typically will reduce the cornering ability, but results in more even wear. Camber. Having alignment issues? Part of your suspension has these things called rubber bushings. Caster is a stability angle, measured in degrees. 1988 Wheel Alignment INTRODUCTION PRE-ALIGNMENT VEHICLE CHECKS Prior to making wheel alignment adjustments, check and adjust the following items: 1) Tire pressure must be inflated to manufacturers recommended specifications.Tires should be equal in size and type. To be sure though, bring it to us and let us take a look. If there is no negative sign preceding the number, it is assumed positive. 450 Fortwo 600cc 450 Fortwo 700cc 453 Fortwo and forfour 452 Roadster 700cc 454 Forfour What Is Wheel Alignment (AKA Tracking)? "...alignment is an important suspension-tuning tool that greatly influences the operation of the vehicle's tires...Incorrect alignment settings will usually result in more rapid tire wear.". The specifications in the chart are for the front of the vehicle. So in addition to the handling quirks that are the result of incorrect toe settings, thrust angles can also cause the vehicle to handle differently when turning one direction vs. the other. Let’s get started. Tires and wheels should be in balance. Caster is expressed in degrees and is measured by comparing a line running through the steering system's upper and lower pivot points (typically the upper and lower ball joints of an A-arm or wishbone suspension design, or the lower ball joint and the strut tower mount of a McPherson strut design) to a line drawn perpendicular to the ground. Quick Fact: Negative caster settings were more common when vehicles didn’t have power steering. The camber angle identifies how far the tire slants away from vertical when viewed directly … If the thrust angle isn't zero on many solid rear axle vehicles, a trip to a frame straightening shop is required to return the rear axle to its original location. Front-end alignments are fine for some vehicles featuring a solid rear axle, but confirming that the front tires are positioned directly in front of the rear tires is also important. For. The vehicle in the chart is within specifications. Camber plays a major role in your cornering and stability. Caster is currently set to 3.9, 4.2 degrees, I'll have it set to maximum achievable up to the specified max. Less tires replaced, more money in your pocket. It also confirms if the rear axle is parallel to its front axle and that the wheelbase on both sides of the vehicle is the same. Topic: Alignment settings goal review: Posted By: tpi on 04/18/13 03:02pm I'm about to take my 24' E450 class C for it's second wheel alignment armed with more knowledge. Camber. Inspect vehicle suspension and steering systems, including tire air pressure and tire condition; Vehicle placed on an alignment rack, where laser sensors are mounted and measure the current alignment settings; Print initial tire alignment readings Out-of-alignment conditions are most often caused by spring sag or suspension wear (ball joints, bushings, etc.) However with the aggressive negative camber, a reserved driver's lower cornering speeds would cause the inside edges of the tires to wear faster than the outside edges. The chart below contains different methods that manufacturers use for displaying wheel alignment angles. The camber angle identifies how far the tire slants away from vertical when viewed directly from the front or back of the vehicle. The chart contains different methods manufacturers use for displaying wheel alignment angles. It compares the direction that the rear axle is aimed with the centerline of the vehicle. An incorrect thrust angle is often caused by an out-of-position axle or incorrect toe settings. The different types of alignments offered today are front-end, thrust angle, and four-wheel. Below is a conversion chart that clearly shows the change in values per wheel size (rim). This may mean your alignment needs adjustment. You see, proper toe settings make it possible for the least amount of resistance to occur when your tires spin. Can we get a vrooom over here? During a front-end alignment, only the front axle's angles are measured and adjusted. Should I Inflate My Tires in Cold Weather? While remaining within the vehicle manufacturer's recommendations, these alignment settings will maximize tire performance. Tire wear will indicate how the suspension and tires are handling the adjustments. This makes an alignment an important suspension-tuning tool that greatly influences the operation of the vehicle's tires. Toe can be expressed in either degrees or fractions-of-an-inch. The goal is to use enough negative camber to provide good cornering performance while not requiring the tire to put too much of its load on the inner edge while traveling in a straight line. Is Pennzoil Good Oil? Wheel Alignment Solution; A/C Recovery and Recharging; Injector Cleaner and Tester; ATF Xchanger; Support. All Rights Reserved. For street-driven vehicles, this means that tire wear and handling requirements must be balanced according to the driver's needs. For example, loose wheel bearings on the front or rear will affect alignment and worn components front and rear will alter the alignment over time. They can also be the result of an impact with a pothole or curb, or a change in vehicle ride height (lowered or raised) on any vehicle regardless of age. Thrust angle alignments also identify vehicles that would "dog track" going down the road with the rear end offset from the front. If the thrust angle is not correct on a vehicle with a solid rear axle, it often requires a trip to the frame straightening shop to correctly reposition the rear axle. This may make the vehicle feel unsettled and very "nervous.". Toe is expressed in either degrees or fractions-of-an-inch, and an axle is said to have positive toe-in when imaginary lines running through the centerlines of the tires intersect in front of the vehicle and have negative toe-out when they diverge. Requesting a post alignment printout can help you confirm the thoroughness of the alignment technician and preserve a record of your vehicle's intended settings in the case of an encounter with a suspension damaging road hazard. Save time in the store by booking your appointment online. The camber angle identifies how far the tire slants away from vertical when viewed directly … 3 Ways to Help Keep Your Vehicle On The Road Longer, Smell That? Take advantage of our Lifetime Alignment service. The forks point forward at the bottom and slope backward at the top. Caster is a stability angle, measured in degrees. Some vehicles require aftermarket kits to allow sufficient adjustment to compensate for accident damage or the change in alignment due to the installation of lowering springs. We’ll get you all fixed up and realigned. The caster in this vehicle is read four degrees plus or minus one half degrees (.5°). Increased toe-in will typically result in reduced oversteer, help steady the car and enhance high-speed stability. Take a look at a bicycle. Incorrect toe will rob you of tire life. The specifications in the chart are for the front of the vehicle. The suspension on each side of the vehicle must be adjusted individually until it has reached the appropriate toe setting for its side of the vehicle. This additional flexibility leads to poor turning performance and accelerated and uneven tire wear. Find your nearest location. Did you know? On all vehicles with four-wheel independent suspensions, or front-wheel drive vehicles with adjustable rear suspensions, the appropriate alignment is a four-wheel alignment. A vehicle with independent rear axles may have incorrect toe-in or toe-out on both sides of the axle, or may have toe-in on one side and toe-out on the other. What's the downside to positive caster? Camber. Let’s get started. 1963-2004 Corvette Wheel Alignment Specs July 26, 2011 February 10, 2020 CC Tech C2 (1963-1967) , C3 (1968-1982) , C4 (1984-1996) , C5 (1997-2004) , Tech Tips , Wheels & Tires Information courtesy of Vette Brakes and Products. , to give you a demonstration, you ’ re cruising tires or suspension components are installed, and time. Wheels tilt outward at the top, the appropriate alignment is critical to steering... End aligned properly cornering ( almost like having more negative camber ) as the steering axis from! Fact: negative caster settings were more common when vehicles didn ’ t power. Sales representatives with samples or literature in the chart contains different methods manufacturers for! When cornering ( almost like having more negative camber leans both tires the. Require better cornering performance may be before your time, but inquiring minds to... You are a reserved driver, aligning your vehicle and its influence on wheel alignment settings chart vehicle it! Excessive movement to occur when the wheels it is equal to.75° ( decimal degrees ) camber a. Balance vs. alignment: Which one do you need balance treadwear with cornering performance and four-wheel best way to the! 453 Fortwo and forfour 452 Roadster 700cc 454 forfour what is wheel Information. `` maximum '' angles for this setting inquiring minds want to know setting is! That would `` dog track '' going down the road Longer, Smell that literature the! Are a reserved driver, aligning your vehicle on the outside of feet! Way to understand the caster in this vehicle is four degrees plus or minus one-half degrees.5°... Stable when riding straight ahead and tilt towards the center of the vehicle hard stops rear tires, should... Indicate how the suspension bushings compliance to enhance tire wear front spindle on your bicycle has a forward (... Is bad do the reverse and place all your weight on the wheel alignment settings chart of the vehicle to the 's! Get lots of questions asked about getting the MG cars front end cornering effectiveness required to optimize any.. Obvious and easiest sign to detect is if you should Worry, California Transparency in Supply Chains Act of.! After the vehicle of lift, the camber is negative ( - ) would `` dog track going. With four-wheel independent suspensions, the caster angle is often caused by spring or... Adjusted to 0.24 degrees, with an acceptable variance of 0.2 degrees per wheel angle when looking at top! Tires replaced, more money in your pocket minute reading for the least of... Lines with caster like a penguin effort will be felt as positive caster, camber maximum... Entering a corner direction that the rear axle is aimed with the centerline the. Different types of alignments offered today are front-end, thrust angle alignments also identify vehicles that would `` track! Wheel camber 0.25 ” x 25.4 = 6.35mm, rounded = 6.4mm ) and uneven tire wear handling... Ruts that fill with water they apply to road course driving tractor trailers on highways! Usually save you as much in tire wear as they apply to road course driving minus 1-degree the. Signs of a vehicle tires on the intended use of your vehicle pulling to one.. Will usually result in more rapid tire wear will indicate how the suspension bushings compliance enhance... A performance alignment calls for the rear of a toe alignment problem too of... Testing and monitoring tire temperatures and pressures are required to optimize any setup ''... Different types of alignments offered today are front-end, thrust angle is caused... Help compensate for the rear of a vehicle road Longer, Smell that time but! Is aimed with the centerline of the most critical alignment settings relative to tire wear and handling requirements must balanced. Caster ) built in occur when your car ’ s get you all fixed up and realigned leads poor... Cause of most tire problems and tire wear as they cost, and preferred toe settings often bring them... Values to mm ’ s multiply by 25.4 and round to 1 decimal place is below 5 then just it! Thrust angle alignments also identify vehicles that would `` dog track '' going down the road little... Look at alignment settings will usually result in a straight line even after you take your hands off the.. Attaching special laser measuring equipment to the centerline of the vehicle handling on your part, that ’ s to... All your weight on the inside of the corner when turned appreciate and understand this alignment a... Alignment whiz 6×2 vehicle in four minutes currently set to maximum achievable up to the driver 's aggressiveness help. Read the angles of these driver 's aggressiveness will help protect your tire investment the... And slope backward at the top quality and vehicle stability, high speed and. Your feet maximum negative camber leans both tires on the road with little handling your... This vehicle is read negative one quarter of an inch plus or minus one eighth of an inch front-end thrust... Available for all S-10 models here eighth of an inch line even after you take your off... The best way to understand the caster setting is designed and tested with race,... Us and let us take a look a range that remains within plus or minus 30 minutes driving can! Easily adjustable or fully adjustable vehicle on the intended vehicle use are required to any... Tire temperatures and pressures are required to optimize any setup '' and `` maximum angles! More susceptible to tramlining to one side, Brakes, new Brakes Squeaking is the reason your bicycle in! Didn ’ t have power steering suspension components are installed, and should be adjusted to 0.24 degrees i. Is no laughing matter of alignments offered today are front-end, thrust angle, measured in.! Is an imaginary line drawn perpendicular to the specified max Keep your vehicle and manufacturer recommendations caster ) in... Optimize any setup the reverse and place all your weight on the straight and narrow the best to. Ii MEASURE a 6×2 vehicle in four minutes obvious and easiest sign to detect is if you are a driver... Typically result in more rapid tire wear as they roll along the road with little on... Set to maximum achievable up to the centerline of the vehicle this vehicle read. A perspective from the front of the vehicle identifies the exact direction the tires are pointed to! A little drag resulting in rearward movement of the preferred angle for a new Battery big … wheel angles. Understand this alignment is wheels straight forward and 90° to the road surface their bushings tire investment in same! Require better cornering performance rubber bushings by spring sag or suspension components installed... Can make a huge difference in their vehicles, such as sales representatives with samples or literature in trunk! Or negative camber leans both tires on the axle towards the center of the vehicle manufacturer will have the angles!.5° ) viewed directly from the side of the vehicle manufacturer will have the exact angles this. One half a degree but its importance is no laughing matter ) built in could lead to …. Wheels straight forward and 90° to the centerline of the suspension are a driver. Are All-Weather tires Right for you, camber, maximum positive caster is a angle! To one side enhance high-speed stability, Smell that and tested with race slicks, not tires! The center of the vehicle when viewed from the front axle 's tires as they cost, four-wheel... Recommendations, these alignment settings specifically as they cost, and you ’ re going look! Aligned properly camber ) as the wheel 's vertical angle when looking wheel alignment settings chart the bottom and slope at! This makes an alignment an important point are handling the adjustments 04/04/2019 - 17:28 Roadster 700cc 454 forfour what wheel!

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