The plane failure occurs when a structural discontinuity plane such as; bedding plane, fault plane or preferred orientations of a joint set dips or daylight towards the valley or excavation at an angle smaller than the slope angle and greater than the angle of friction of the discontinuity surface. Slip plane or failure plane or slip surface or failure surface is the surface of sliding. A rockslide is a type of landslide caused by rock failure in which part of the bedding plane of failure passes through compacted rock and material collapses en masse and not in individual blocks. Corpus ID: 109749725. Corpus ID: 109749725. Although the discontinuity orientations were the same in all two-dimensional models, different ratios of joint plane spacings to bedding plane spacings were used. [1], [3] and [4] gave the analytical solution for the plane failure mode in rock slopes. An analysis is presented here which can take these factors into account. Rotational failure can be seen in finite slopes such as earthen dams, embankments, man-made slopes etc. 1: Dimensions and surfaces defining size and shape of wedge. Plane failure in rock slopes – A review on stability analysis techniques. [1], [3] and [4] gave the analytical solution for the plane failure mode in rock slopes. The stability of the slope, having plane mode of failure, depends on the geometry, rock type, potential failure plane characteristics, groundwater conditions, dynamic loading and the surcharge conditions. Rotational failure can be seen in finite slopes such as earthen dams, embankments, man-made slopes etc. 24. The slope angle is sometimes referred to as a ratio, for example, 2:1 [horizontal (H):vertical (V)]. PDF. Note that a rockslide is similar to an avalanche because they are both slides of debris that can bury a piece of land. Zhao et al. Failure in rock slope masses governs by the presence of joints, its orientation, and joints’ persistence. In stratified sedimentary and meta-sedimentary rock formations ‘plane mode’ of rock failure is very common. Rock slope stability analysis has been a challenging problem for civil and mining engineers. 3.2 . Search all titles. Plane failure with condition of failures • The dip direction of the planar discontinuity must be within ( ±20o) of the dip direction of the slope face • The dip of the planar discontinuity must be less than the dip of the slope face (Daylight) • The dip of the planar discontinuity must … Anchored rock slope… The slope face is vertical with a height H, the failure plane is oriented at an angle ψ, and a vertical load, L, is applied to the upper slope. The presented method can obtain not only the detailed stability status at any grid node of a complex shear plane but also the global safety of the slope. 9, No. 9, No. It is also common when there are fissures, joints, or weak soil layers in slope, or when a slope is made of two different materials. There are several parameters including surcharge and seismic loads that govern the stability of the rock slope against plane failure in field projects. Download PDF Package. A three-dimensional wedge failure analysis was presented by Coates (1967), Lond et al (1970) and Hudson & Harrison (1997). Calculation of the daylight envelope for plane failure of rock slopes. Observed failure modes in rock slopes are of a wide variety. View of Beartooth Highway along the east side of the Beartooth Mountains, near Red Lodge, Montana. Journal of King Saud University - Science, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2017.06.004. Search: Search all titles. Stability of Finite Slopes with Plane Failure Surface ... • Rapidly moving mass of material (rock or soil) that travels mostly through the air with little or no interaction between moving unit and another. Mechanism of rock slope failure under self weight, water forces, surcharge, horizontal seismic force, and stabilizing force. Landslide can result either from rock failure or soil failure. When the instability is dictated by the presence of pre-existing discontinuities, the instability takes the form of plane sliding, wedge sliding or toppling. Those analysis, they assumed that the upper slope surface is horizontal and tension crack is vertical. joints and bedding planes) would be needed for every cut-slope for the assessment and identification of potential instability problems. International Journal of Surface Mining, Reclamation and Environment: Vol. 2nd Quarter 2005 C over Story 24 and especially mapping of the geological structures (e.g. T&F logo. It is also commonly referred to as the block failure or the plane slope failure. ±20°). Search: Search all titles ; Search all collections ; Rock Slope Engineering. There are numerous analytical methods for the rock slope stability including limit equilibrium, stress analysis and stereographic methods. The intersection of planar discontinuities in the rock mass with the surface slope is predisposing toward plane and wedge failures. Create a free account to download. Landslide developed in rock mass usually has irregular shear plane. Download Full PDF Package. Sliding mass is the mass of soil within the slip plane and the ground surface. Those analysis, they assumed that the upper slope surface is horizontal and tension crack is vertical. Mining under an open pit slope results in the collapse and slide of the slope. The limiting equilibrium methods for slopes under various conditions against plane failure have been previously proposed by several investigators. 1-6. One of the structurally controlled modes of failure in jointed rock slopes is plane failure. (1995). The size of planar failures can range from a few cubic meters to largescale landslides that involve entire mountainsides. (1995). Alternatively, the planar failure may be located on a nose of rock so that the slope forms the lat-eral termination of the failure mass. Skip to main content. In this paper, a combination of methods including Google Earth and field investigations is applied to investigate the process of eastern slope failure induced by underground mining in the Yanqianshan Iron Mine over five years. IS 14448 (1997): Code of practice for reinforcement of rock slopes with plane wedge failure. The Sliding mass is the mass of soil within the slip plane and the ground surface. Weak or fragmented rock, like soil, may fail in the circular mode. 24. Plane failure in rock slope. Mechanism of rock slope failure under self weight, water forces, surcharge, horizontal seismic force, and stabilizing force. Login; Hi, User . PDF. Fig. In Fig. 1: Dimensions and surfaces defining size and shape of wedge. Rotational Failure Rotational Failure. Kinematic Analysis – Planar Rock Slope Failure To consider the kinematic admissibility of plane instability, five necessary but simple geometrical criteria must be met: (i) The plane on which sliding occurs must strike near parallel to the slope face (within approx. Wedge Failure. Therefore, in kinematic analysis, the orientation of the combination of discontinuities and slope face is examined to determine if certain modes of failure can be occurred. Premium PDF Package. 1, pp. • As they fall, the mass will roll and bounce into the air with great force and thus shatter the material into smaller fragments. This is mainly due to the presence of joints/discontinuities within the rock mass. Plane failure analysis of rock slopes: A reliability approach. the circular failure can be considered. … The plane failure occurs when a structural discontinuity plane such as; bedding plane, fault plane or preferred orientations of a joint set dips or daylight towards the valley or excavation at an angle smaller than the slope angle and greater than the angle of friction of the discontinuity surface. The plane failure is one of the rock slope failures observed in field situations when the discontinuity is in the form of joint planes. The slope may demonstrate these conditions in a simple uniform manner or there may be complex conditions owing to variability in the slope geometry and heterogeneity in the slope material. 1, pp. Toppling can occur for a variety of reasons: undercutting of the toe of the slope, frost-wedging … 3.2 . An approach for calculating distributed factor of safety of the irregular shear plane was put forward in this paper. Some attention was focused on the stability of Norwegian rock slopes after the destructive rock-avalanches and tsunamis in Tafjord and Loen in 1934 and 1936. The pattern of the discontinuities may be comprised of a single discontinuity or a pair of discontinuities that intersect each other, or a combination of multiple discontinuities that are linked together to form a … Stability analysis of anchored rock slopes against plane failure subjected to surcharge and seismic loads @inproceedings{Hossain2011StabilityAO, title={Stability analysis of anchored rock slopes against plane failure subjected to surcharge and seismic loads}, author={M. Hossain}, year={2011} } Toe failure is the most common failure in which failure plane passes through toe of slope. a) For the rock slope shown below, derive an equation for the factor of safety against sliding using the plane failure equilibrium technique. Base failure occurs when there is a weak soil strata under the toe and failure plane passes through base of slope. 32, and Rocscience 33 went on to extend the failure model to a complex case in which both the top surface of the slope and the tension cracks are inclined. When the instability is dictated by the presence of pre-existing discontinuities, the instability takes the form of plane sliding, wedge sliding or toppling. There are several types of rock slope failures observed in different field situations; a plane failure is one of them. Hoek and Bray 31 proposed a sliding failure model for the stability analysis of a plane rock slope for which the upper sliding body includes the horizontal sliding surface and vertical tension cracks. The unit weight of the rock is γ. Title of Legally Binding Document: Code of practice for reinforcement of rock slopes with plane wedge failure Number of Amendments: 1 Equivalence: Superceding: Superceded by: LEGALLY BINDING DOCUMENT Step Out From the Old to the New--Jawaharlal Nehru Invent a new India using knowledge.--Satyanarayan Gangaram Pitroda Addeddate 2013-09-13 06:47:25 Identifier gov.in.is.14448.1997 … The limiting equilibrium methods for slopes under various conditions against plane failure have been previously proposed by several investigators. slopes such as cut slope, other types of rock slope failure (wedge failure, planer failure, and toppling) may eventually lead to the rockfall event. Download Free PDF. Geometry of slope exhibiting plane failure: (a) cross-section of the rock slope with a plane failure situation; and (b) release surfaces at ends of plane failure. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Corpus ID: 109749725. The plane failure occurs when a structural discontinuity plane such as; bedding plane, fault plane or preferred orientations of a joint set dips or daylight towards the valley or excavation at an angle smaller than the slope angle and greater than the angle of friction of the discontinuity surface. In this manner the engineer can obtain a good idea of the sensitivity of the rock slope … Figure. 28 Full PDFs related to this … of failure in rock slopes with the structural configu-ration described above to compare the behaviour of two-and three-dimensional slopes. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. 27. This types of failures generally occurred in nature where the bed of rocks is found below the certain depth of the soil mass along the slope and soil above it slide due to a decrease in the bond between them. Planar rock slope failure occurs when a mass of rock in a slope slides down and along a relatively planar failure surface. 3.1 . It is also known as block failure or plane failure. The plane failure in rock slope occur when a structural discontinuity plane dips or daylight towards the valley at an angle smaller than the slope face angle and greater than the angle of friction of the discontinuity surface (Tang et al., 2016, Kovari and Fritz, 1984). Pablo Chang Huang. Semantic Scholar is a free, AI-powered research tool for scientific literature, based at the Allen Institute for AI. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University. The intersection of planar discontinuities in the rock mass with the surface slope is predisposing toward plane and wedge failures. There are numerous analytical methods for the rock slope stability including limit equilibrium, stress analysis and stereographic methods. Plane Failure Analysis calculates the factor of safety for plane failures in rock and soil slopes where defined discontinuity planes exist. The present work focuses on the study of the wedge failure, which occurs as sliding of a mass of rock on two intersecting planes, generally discontinuity planes. The slope face is vertical with a height H, the failure plane is oriented at an angle ψ, and a vertical load, L, is applied to the upper slope. Kinematic Analysis – Planar Rock Slope Failure To consider the kinematic admissibility of plane instability, five necessary but simple geometrical criteria must be met: (i) The plane on which sliding occurs must strike near parallel to the slope face (within approx. In assessing the potential for such failure, the orientation of the discontinuities relative to that of the face of the slope is a crucial consideration. IS 14448: Code of practice for reinforcement of rock slopes with plane wedge failure by Bureau of Indian Standards Publication date 1997 Name of Standards Organization: Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) Division Name: Civil Engineering Section Name: Rock Mechanics (CED 48) Designator of Legally Binding Document: IS 14448 Title of Legally Binding Document: Code of practice for reinforcement … International Journal of Surface Mining, Reclamation and Environment: Vol. Each of these methods has their own advantage and limitations owing to the slope conditions, application requirement and capability of an expert. Planar rock slope failure occurs when a mass of rock in a slope slides down and along a relatively planar failure surface. An extract from Stability Analysis of Rock Slopes for Plane & Wedge Failure with the Aid of a programmable Pocket Calculator, K. Kovari and P. Fritz, Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Switzerland Institute of Highways and Underground Structures, Department of Rock Mechanics, 10 pgs. " The slope failure occurred along the plane of the soil mass is known as wedge failure. slopes with plane wedge failure [CED 48: Rock Mechanics] IS 14448: 1997 Indian Standard CODEOFPRACTICE FOR REINFORCEMENT OFROCKSLOPES WITH PLANEWEDGEFAILURE ICS 93.020 1997 BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS MANAK BHAVAN, 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG NEW DELHI 110002 October 1997 Price Group 5 (Reaffirmed - 2012) AMENDMENT NO.1 DECEMBER 2006 TO IS … Rock slope failure involves an interplay between existing discontinuities and development of new fractures in intact material. Rock failures are generally complex failure due to its anisotropic nature. The unit weight of the rock is γ. Footwall slope Bi-planar failure Ploughing failure FDEM DEM Brittle fracture Footwall slopes refer to unbenched rock slopes in which the slope face is parallel to a set of persistent disconti-nuities (e.g. The infinite slope is defined as the slope having no boundaries and contains same properties of soil up to assumed equal depth along the slope. One of the structurally controlled modes of failure in jointed rock slopes is plane failure. You are currently offline. Source: A Short Course in Soil and Rock Slope Engineering, 1 Jan 2001 (241–261) Investigation of rock anchorage failures and cutting remediation at Glyn Bends, North Wales, UK. Plane mode of failure generally occurs in slope formed by stratified sedimentary and meta-sedimentary rock formations. Search all collections. The plane failure is one of the rock slope failure modes in field situations, and the limit equilibrium approach for the estimation of the factor of safety of the rock slope against plane failure has been well accepted by the engineers. 10.1680/geot.2004.54.4.279 279-280. 2.5 Wedge failure 14 Fig. KEYWORDS: slopes; rocks/rock mechanics INTRODUCTION Plane failure—the downdip sliding on a single set of dis-continuities—constitutes an important mode of failure of rock slopes. Figure 7. the circular failure can be considered. or. Rock Slope Wedge Failure Typical wedge failure involving sliding on two persistent joints with line of intersection of joints daylighting at toe of rock face, and an upper plane that formed a tension crack. Definitions of key Terms in Slope Failure. Wedge failure mostly occurs when the wedges and the distinct blocks of the soil mass get separated. Four such ratios were tested, as summarized in Table I. This construction legal animation illustrates how a slope failure occurred in a reservoir. 3.1 . Plane failure analysis of rock slopes: A reliability approach. Plane Failure. Slope Failure Processes • Rock fall occurs when ice wedging loosens angular boulders from rocky cliffs. 2.3 Plane failure 11 Fig. The aim of the investigation is to determine the influence of the main parameters on the safety factor (Hoek and Londe, 1974). It is also known as block failure or plane failure. In this work we study progressive failure using concepts of statistical physics and by means of numerical methods using distinct element methods (DEM). a) For the rock slope shown below, derive an equation for the factor of safety against sliding using the plane failure equilibrium technique. The failure surfaces are usually structural discontinuities such as bedding planes, faults, joints or the interface between bedrock and an overlying layer of weathered rock. Base failure occurs when there is a weak soil strata under the toe and failure plane passes through base of slope. Stability analysis of anchored rock slopes against plane failure subjected to surcharge and seismic loads @inproceedings{Hossain2011StabilityAO, title={Stability analysis of anchored rock slopes against plane failure subjected to surcharge and seismic loads}, author={M. Hossain}, year={2011} } Logout. Failure of a rock slope on one or two plane surfaces is the simplest but at the same time the most important type of sliding failure and forms the basis for the stability analysis of rock slopes. The aim of the investigation is to determine the influence of the main parameters on the safety factor (Hoek and Londe, 1974). Summary A simple formula for plane slope failure is derived, which may be used for the design of … 28, Sharma et al. 1-6. joints and bedding planes) would be needed for every cut-slope for the assessment and identification of potential instability problems. It is found that varying the angle of the upper slope from 0° to 30° causes a significant reduction in the factor of safety. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Weak or fragmented rock, like soil, may fail in the circular mode. 21 are shown four types of failure of rock slopes: (a) plane, (b) wedge, (c) circular, and (d) toppling. Abstract In stratified sedimentary and meta-sedimentary rock formations ‘plane mode’ of rock failure is very common. Figure 8. • Rockslides occur where sheets of rock move downslope on a planar sliding surface such as a bedding plane or fracture surface. A three-dimensional wedge failure analysis was presented by Coates (1967), Lond et al (1970) and Hudson & Harrison (1997). 2.6 Conditions of effective forces in the wedge failure analysis 15 Fig. A short summary of this paper. Plane failures in rock slopes occur when a geological discontinuity strikes parallel or nearly parallel to the slope face and dips at an angle greater than the angle of internal friction. In Fig. Fig 3: Rotational Failure . Major plane failure in granite rock slope. The stability of the slope, having plane mode of failure, can be assessed by different methods which can be broadly classified as conventional and numerical methods. Plane failure in rock slope. The stability of the slope, having plane mode of failure, depends on the geometry…, Stability analysis of rock wedge slide subjected to groundwater dynamic evolution, Probabilistic and Sensitivity Analysis of Rock Slope Using Anisotropic Material Models for Planar Failures, UDEC-based stability analysis of jointed bedding slope and slope parameter optimization suggestions: a case study, Stability Analysis of Rock Structure in Large Slopes and Open-Pit Mine: Numerical and Experimental Fault Modeling, Governing factors influence on rock slope stability – Statistical analysis for plane mode of failure, Comprehensive Method to Test the Stability of High Bedding Rock Slop Subjected to Atomized Rain, A review on the development of rock slope stability assessment in Malaysia, Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the Effect of Faults in Open-Pit Mining Stability, Assessment of stability of a Himalayan road cut slope with varying degrees of weathering: A finite-element-model-based approach, Analysis of Geotechnical-Assisted 2-D Electrical Resistivity Tomography Monitoring of Slope Instability in Residual Soil of Weathered Granitic Basement, A new approach to plane failure of rock slope stability based on water flow velocity in discontinuities for the Latian dam reservoir landslide, ROCK SLOPES PROCESSES AND RECOMMENDED METHODS FOR ANALYSIS, Stability analysis of stratified rock slopes with spatially variable strength parameters: the case of Qianjiangping landslide, Developments in the characterization of complex rock slope deformation and failure using numerical modelling techniques, Probabilistic method to determine the overall rock block failure based on failure mode, Evaluation of rock slope stability for Yujian River dam site by kinematic and block theory analyses, The assessment of slope stability and rock excavatability in a limestone quarry, Effect of Surcharge on the Stability of Anchored Rock Slope with Water Filled Tension Crack under Seismic Loading Condition, Numerical analysis of initiation and progressive failure in natural rock slopes—the 1991 Randa rockslide, Journal of King Saud University - Science, Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, By clicking accept or continuing to use the site, you agree to the terms outlined in our. 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