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**Properties of Equality**

Properties are rules that allow you to balance, manipulate, and solve equations

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**Addition Property of Equality**

Adding the same number to both sides of an equation does not change the equality of the equation. If a = b, then a + c = b + c. Ex: x=y, so x+2=y+2

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**Subtraction Property of Equality**

Subtracting the same number to both sides of an equation does not change the equality of the equation. If a = b, then a – c = b – c. Ex: x = y, so x – 4 = y – 4

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**Multiplication Property of Equality**

Multiplying both sides of the equation by the same number, other than 0, does not change the equality of the equation. If a = b, then ac = bc. Ex: x = y, so 3x = 3y

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**Division Property of Equality**

Dividing both sides of the equation by the same number, other than 0, does not change the equality of the equation. If a = b, then a/c = b/c. Ex: x = y, so x/7 = y/7

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**Reflexive Property of Equality**

A number is equal to itself. (Think mirror) a = a Ex: 4 = 4

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**Symmetric Property of Equality**

If numbers are equal, they will still be equal if the order is changed. If a = b, then b = a. Ex: x = 4, then 4 = x

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**Transitive Property of Equality**

If numbers are equal to the same number, then they are equal to each other. If a = b and b = c, then a = c. Ex: If x = 8 and y = 8, then x = y

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**Substitution Property of Equality**

If numbers are equal, then substituting one in for the another does not change the equality of the equation. If a = b, then b may be substituted for a in any expression containing a. Ex: x = 5, then y = x + 6 is the same as y =

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Other Properties

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Commutative Property Changing the order of addition or multiplication does not matter. “Commutative” comes from “commute” or “move around”, so the Commutative Property is the one that refers to moving stuff around.

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Commutative Property Addition: a + b = b + a Ex: = 9 + 1

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Commutative Property Multiplication: a ∙ b = b ∙ a Ex: 8 ∙ 6 = 6 ∙ 8

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Associative Property The change in grouping of three or more terms/factors does not change their sum or product. “Associative” comes from “associate” or “group”, so the Associative Property is the one that refers to grouping.

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**Associative Property Addition: a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c**

Ex: 1 + (7 + 9) = (1 + 7) + 9

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**Associative Property Multiplication: a ∙ (b ∙ c) = (a ∙ b) ∙ c**

Ex: 8 ∙ (3 ∙ 6) = (8 ∙ 3) ∙ 6

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**Distributive Property**

The product of a number and a sum is equal to the sum of the individual products of terms.

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**Distributive Property**

a ∙ (b + c) = a ∙ b + a ∙ c Ex: 5 ∙ (x + 6) = 5 ∙ x + 5 ∙ 6

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**Additive Identity Property**

The sum of any number and zero is always the original number. Adding nothing does not change the original number. a + 0 = a Ex: = 4

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**Multiplicative Identity Property**

The product of any number and one is always the original number. Multiplying by one does not change the original number. a ∙ 1 = a Ex: 2 ∙ 1 = 2

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**Additive Inverse Property**

The sum of a number and its inverse (or opposite) is equal to zero. a + (-a) = 0 Ex: 2 + (-2) = 0

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**Multiplicative Inverse Property**

The product of any number and its reciprocal is equal to 1. Ex:

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**Multiplicative Property of Zero**

The product of any number and zero is always zero. a ∙ 0 = 0 Ex: 298 ∙ 0 = 0

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**Exponential Property of Equality**

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M-A-T-H-O

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Homework Worksheet

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